If you want to under­stand the deep­est mal­func­tions of sys­tems, pay atten­tion to the rules, and to who has pow­er over them.

Lever­age Points: Places to Inter­vene in a Sys­tem — The Donel­la Mead­ows Institute

Prob­a­bly some of the best sys­tems the­o­ry I’ve read in a while. There is so much over­lap between how the author looks at things and how game design­ers do, it’s eerie. Many of the sug­ges­tions here could be mod­eled with Machi­na­tions, in fact.

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Kars Alfrink

Kars is a designer, researcher and educator focused on emerging technologies, social progress and the built environment.