Doing UX inside of Scrum

Some notes on how I am cur­rent­ly “doing user expe­ri­ence” inside of Scrum. This approach has evolved from my projects at Hub­bub as well as more recent­ly my work with ARTO and on a project at Eden­spiek­er­mann. So I have found it works with both star­tups and agency style projects.

The start­ing point is to under­stand that Scrum is intend­ed to be a con­tain­er. It is a process frame­work. It should be able to hold any oth­er activ­i­ty you think you need as a team. So if we feel we need to add UX some­how, we should try to make it part of Scrum and not some­thing that is tacked onto Scrum. Why not tack some­thing on? Because it sig­nals design is some­how dis­tinct from devel­op­ment. And the whole point of doing agile is to have cross-func­tion­al teams. If you set up a sep­a­rate process for design you are high­ly like­ly not to ben­e­fit from the full col­lec­tive intel­li­gence of the com­bined design and devel­op­ment team. So no, design needs to be inside of the Scrum con­tain­er.

Stag­gered sprints are not the answer either because you are still split­ting the team into design and devel­op­ment, ham­per­ing cross-col­lab­o­ra­tion and trans­paren­cy. You’re basi­cal­ly invit­ing Tay­lorism back into your process—the very thing you were try­ing to get­ting away from.

When you are uncom­fort­able with putting design­ers and devel­op­ers all in the same team and the same process the answer is not to make your process more elab­o­rate, par­cel things up, and decrease “messy” inter­ac­tions. The answer is increas­ing con­ver­sa­tion, not elim­i­nat­ing it.

It turns out things aren’t remote­ly as com­pli­cat­ed as they appear to be. The key is under­stand­ing Scrum’s events. The big event hold­ing all oth­er events is the sprint. The sprint out­puts a releasable incre­ment of “done” prod­uct. The devel­op­ment team does every­thing required to achieve the sprint goal col­lab­o­ra­tive­ly deter­mined dur­ing sprint plan­ning. Nat­u­ral­ly this includes any design need­ed for the prod­uct. I think of this as the ‘pro­duc­tion’ type of design. It typ­i­cal­ly con­sists most­ly of UI design. There may already be some pre­lim­i­nary UI design avail­able at the start of the sprint but it does not have to be fin­ished.

What about the kind of design that is required for fig­ur­ing out what to build in the first place? It might not be obvi­ous at first, but Scrum actu­al­ly has an ongo­ing process which read­i­ly accom­mo­dates it: back­log refine­ment. These are all activ­i­ties required to get a prod­uct back­log item in shape for sprint plan­ning. This is emphat­i­cal­ly not a solo show for the prod­uct man­ag­er to con­duct. It is some­thing the whole team col­lab­o­rates on. Devel­op­ers and design­ers. In my expe­ri­ence design­ers are great at facil­i­tat­ing back­log refine­ment ses­sions. At the white­board, fig­ur­ing stuff out with the whole team ‘Lean UX’ style.

I will admit prod­uct back­log refine­ment is Scrum’s weak point. Where it offers a lot of struc­ture for the sprints, it offers hard­ly any for the back­log refine­ment (or groom­ing as some call it). But that’s okay, we can evolve our own.

I like to use Kan­ban to man­age the process of back­log refine­ment. Items come into the pipeline as some­thing we want to elab­o­rate because we have decid­ed we want to build it (in some form or oth­er, can be just an exper­i­ment) in the next sprint or two. It then goes through var­i­ous stages of elab­o­ra­tion. At the very least cap­tur­ing require­ments in the form of user sto­ries or job sto­ries, doing sketch­es, a lo-fi pro­to­type, mock­ups and a hi-fi pro­to­type and final­ly break­ing the item down into work to be done and attach­ing an esti­mate to it. At this point it is ready to be part of a sprint. Cru­cial­ly, dur­ing this life­cy­cle of an item as it is being refined, we can and should do user research if we feel we need more data, or user test­ing if we feel it is too risky to com­mit to a fea­ture out­right.

For this kind of fig­ur­ing stuff out, this ‘plan­ning’ type of design, it makes no sense to have it be part of a sprint-like struc­ture because the work required to get it to a ‘ready’ state is much more unpre­dictable. The point of hav­ing a loos­er groom­ing flow is that it exists to elim­i­nate uncer­tain­ty for when we com­mit to an item in a sprint.

So between the sprint and back­log refine­ment, Scrum read­i­ly accom­mo­dates design. ‘Pro­duc­tion’ type design hap­pens inside of the sprint and design­ers are con­sid­ered part of the devel­op­ment team. ‘Plan­ning’ type of design hap­pens as part of back­log refine­ment.

So no need to tack on a sep­a­rate process. It keeps the process sim­ple and under­stand­able, thus increas­ing trans­paren­cy for the whole team. It pre­vents design from becom­ing a black box to oth­ers. And when we make design part of the con­tain­er process frame­work that is Scrum, we reap the rewards of the team’s col­lec­tive intel­li­gence and we increase our agili­ty.